Congressional Justification
FY 2011

February 2010 (historical)

Organization Chart

Organization chart for the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Organization chart for the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). The chart shows 8 boxes, the overarching box contains the names of the Director, Deputy Director and the Associate Director for Management and Operations. The Director of NIAMS is Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D., the Deputy Director is Robert H. Carter, M.D., the Associate Director for Management and Operations is W. Gahan Breithaupt, M.B.A. The top box subsumes 7 boxes beneath. The director's 7 direct reports are: Office of Administrative Management Director, W. Gahan Breithaupt, M.B.A., Office of Science Policy and Planning Director, Anita M. Linde, M.P.P., Office of Communication and Public Liaison Director, Janet S. Austin, Ph.D., Intramural Research Program Scientific Director, John J. O'Shea, M.D., Division of Extramural Research Activities Acting Director, Laura K. Moen, Ph.D., Division of Musculoskeletal Diseases Director, Joan A. McGowan, Ph.D., Division of Skin and Rheumatic Diseases Director, Susana Serrate-Sztein, M.D.

View a larger version of the organization chart.


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Appropriation Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases [$539,082,000] $555,715,000 (Public Law 111-117, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, )


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Amounts Available for Obligation

Amounts Available for Obligation 1/

Source of Funding

FY 2009
Actual

FY 2010
Enacted

FY 2011
PB
Appropriation $524,872,000 $539,082,000 $555,715,000
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission 0 0 0
Supplemental 0 0 0

Subtotal, adjusted appropriation
524,872,000 539,082,000 555,715,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -866,000 0 0
Real transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer to the National Center for Biotechnology Information -83,000 -128,000 0
Comparative transfer to the National Library of Medicine for Public Access -93,000 -100,000 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 866,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer from DHHS for Autism 0 0 0

Subtotal, adjusted budget authority
524,696,000 538,854,000 555,715,000
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0

Subtotal, adjusted budget authority
524,696,000 538,854,000 555,715,000
Unobligated balance lapsing -119,000 0 0

     Total obligations
524,577,000 538,854,000 555,715,000

1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
   FY 2009 - $1,207,000   FY 2010 - $1,200,000   FY 2011 - $1,238,000


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Budget Mechanism Table

(Dollars in Thousands)
Budget Mechanism - Total
MECHANISM FY 2009
Actual
FY 2009 Recovery
Act Actual
FY 2010
Recovery Act Estimated
FY 2010
Enacted
FY 2011
PB
Change
Research Grants: No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 756 $250,439 $0 $0 $88 $38,155 703 $247,768 754 $268,601 51 $20,833
Administrative supplements (20) 2,547 (54) 7,735 (4) 5,723 (28) 1,800 (28) 1,854 0 54
Competing:
Renewal 67 29,175 13 4,686 0 0 79 34,230 66 29,344 (13) -4,886
New 160 47,850 78 35,912 7 3,424 182 56,153 153 48,137 (29) -8,016
Supplements 11 1,855 32 16,849 1 640 13 2,176 11 1,865 (2) -311
Subtotal, competing 238 78,880 123 57,448 8 4,065 274 92,559 230 79,346 (44) (13,213)
Subtotal, RPGs 994 331,866 123 65,183 96 47,943 977 342,127 984 349,801 7 7,674
SBIR/STTR 36 12,380 12 2,830 6 2,402 36 12,623 37 13,114 1 491
Subtotal, RPGs 1,030 344,246 135 68,013 102 50,345 1,013 354,750 1,021 362,915 8 8,165

Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 40 41,102 7 4,834 8 4,462 40 41,718 40 42,970 0 1,252
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 -30
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 40 41,132 11 4,834 8 4,462 40 41,748 40 42,970 0 1,222

Other Research:
Research careers 152 18,510 0 1,158 0 0 152 18,790 153 19,354 1 564
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 32 3,150 0 0 0 0 32 3,197 32 3,293 0 96
Subtotal,
Other Research
184 21,660 14 1,158 0 0 184 21,987 185 22,647 1 660
  
Total Research Grants
1,254 407,038 160 74,005 114 5,4807 1,237 418,485 1,246 428,532 9 10,047
Research Training: FTTPs   FTTPs   FTTPs   FTTPs   FTTPs      
Individual awards 64 3,010 0 0 0 0 64 3,040 64 3,220 0 180
Institutional awards 257 12,504 6 366 6 366 257 12,628 257 13,376 0 748
Total, Training 321 15,514 6 366 6 366 321 15,668 321 16,596 0 928

Research & development contracts
55 22,679 0 0 1 1,000 55 23,973 55 26,812 0 2,839
(SBIR/STTR) (0) (20) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (136) (0) (136) (0) (0)

FTEs   FTEs   FTEs   FTEs   FTEs   FTEs  
Intramural research 142 54,124 0 483 0 175 138 54,944 143 56,702 5 1,758
Research management and support 96 25,341 0 274 0 1,250 93 25,784 98 27,073 5 1,289
Construction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total, NIAMS 238 524,696 0 75,128 0 57,598 231 538,854 241 555,715 10 16,861


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Budget Authority by Program

Link to larger text view of Budget Authority by Program table.
BA by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)
  FY 2007
Actual
FY 2008
Actual
FY 2009
Actual
FY 2009
Comparable
FY 2010
Enacted
FY 2011
PB

Change
Extramural Research
Detail:
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases   $135,318   $119,670   $124,240   $124,433   $128,036   $131,896   3,860
Skin Biology and Diseases   66,783   59,808   65,324   65,425   67,321   $69,351   2,030
Muscle Biology and Diseases   73,242   71,189   71,954   72,066   74,154   $76,390   2,236
Musculoskeletal Biology and Diseases   90,877   116,720   114,651   114,830   118,155   $121,718   3,563
Bone Biology and Diseases   66,210   65,391   68,372   68,477   70,460   $72,585   2,125


Subtotal,
Extramural
  432,430   432,778   444,541   445,231   458,126   471,940   13,814

Intramural research
131 50,862 135 52,915 142 54,124 142 54,124 138 54,944 143 56,702 5 1,758

Research management and support
84 24,000 91 24,732 96 25,341 96 25,341 93 25,784 98 27,073 5 1,289

TOTAL
215 507,292 226 510,425 238 524,006 238 524,696 231 538,854 241 555,715 10 16,861

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research


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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2011 budget request for NIAMS, which is $16.861 million more than the FY 2010 Estimate, for a total of $555.715 million.

Research Project Grants (+$8.165 million; total $362.915 million): NIAMS will support a total of 1,021 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2011. Noncompeting awards will increase by 51 awards and $20.833 million. Competing RPGs will decrease by 44 awards and $13.213 million. The NIH budget policy for RPGs in FY 2011 is to provide an inflationary increase of 2% in noncompeting awards and allow a 2% increase in the average cost of competing RPGs. NIAMS will continue to support new investigators and to maintain an adequate number of competing RPGs.

Research Training (+$.928 million; total $16.596 million): NIAMS will support 321 pre- and postdoctoral trainees in full-time training positions, the same number as in FY 2009. Stipend levels for NRSA trainees will increase by 6 percent over FY 2010 levels.

Intramural Research (+$1.758 million; total $56.702 million): NIAMS will continue to identify areas of potential savings within the Intramural Research Program which will allow us to achieve our program goals and accomplishments. As outlined in the Justification Narrative for the Intramural Research Program area, NIAMS will also pursue new opportunities in genome research.

Research Management and Support (+$1.289 million; total $27.073 million): Research Management and Support will receive an increase to help cover the costs of pay and other increases.


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Summary of Changes

Summary of Changes
FY 2010 estimate $538,854,000
FY 2011 estimated budget authority 555,715,000
Net change 16,861,000
  2010 Current
Estimate Base
Change from Base
CHANGES FTEs Budget
Authority
FTEs Budget
Authority
 A.  Built-in:
    1.  Intramural research:
        a.  Annualization of January
             2010 pay increase
  $20,541,000   $124,000
        b.  January FY 2011 pay increase   20,541,000   216,000
        c.  Zero less days of pay (n/a for 2011)   20,541,000   0
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services   9,204,000   184,000
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
  25,199,000   403,000
        Subtotal       927,000

    2.  Research management and support:
        a.  Annualization of January  
             2010 pay increase
  $12,780,000   $77,000
        b.  January FY 2011 pay increase   12,780,000   134,000
        c.  Zero less days of pay (n/a for 2011)   12,780,000   0
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services   4,226,000   85,000
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
  8,778,000   140,000
        Subtotal       436,000

        Subtotal, Built-in
      1,363,000
Summary of Changes - continued
  2010 Current
Estimate Base

Change from Base
CHANGES No. Amount No. Amount
B.  Program:
    1.  Research project grants:
        a.  Noncompeting 703 $249,568,000 51 $20,887,000
        b.  Competing  274 92,559,000 (44) (13,213,000)
        c.  SBIR/STTR 36 12,623,000 1 491,000
Total 1,013 354,750,000 8 8,165,000
    2.  Research centers 40 41,748,000 0 1,222,000
    3.  Other research 184 21,987,000 1 660,000
    4.  Research training 321 15,668,000 0 928,000
    5.  Research and development contracts 55 23,973,000 0 2,839,000
         Subtotal, extramural        13,814,000
  FTEs   FTEs  
    6.  Intramural research 138 54,944,000 5 831,000
    7.  Research management and support 93 25,784,000 5 853,000
    8.  Construction   0   0
    9.  Buildings and Facilities   0   0
        Subtotal, program   538,854,000   15,498,000
         
Total changes
231   10 16,861,000


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Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs:

Bar chart indicating Funding Levels by Fiscal Year from 2007 through 2011. Bar chart indicating funding levels (dollars in millions) for NIAMS from 2007 through 2011. 2007, $508.1;  2008, $508.6; 2009, $524.7; 2010, $538.9; 2011, $555.7.

Bar chart indicating FTE's by Fiscal Year from 2007 through 2011. 2007-215; 2008-217; 2009-238; 2010-231; 2011-241.

Distribution by Mechanism:

FY 2011 Budget Mechanism Pie chart indicating funding for fiscal year 2011 by budget mechanism. The pie has 7 slices. From largest to smallest the amounts are: Research Project Grants,  65%; Intramural Research, 10%; Research Centers, 8%; R.M. and S, 5%; Other Research, 4%; R&D Contracts, 5%;  Research Training, 3%.

Change by Selected Mechanisms:

Bar chart showing FY 2011 Estimate Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism. There are 7 bars. From top to bottom they are: Research Project Grants, 2.3%; Research Centers, 2.9%; Other Research, 3.0%; Research Training, 5.9%; R&D Contracts, 11.8%; Intramural Research, 3.2%; Research Management and Support, 5.0%


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Justification of Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.
FY 2009
Appropriation
FY 2010
Appropriation
FY 2011
President's
Budget
FY 2011 +/-
2010
BA  $524,696,000 $538,854,000 $555,715,000 +$16,861,000
FTE         238           231 241 +10

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 activities of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), including HIV/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2011 HIV/AIDS activities are in the ďOffice of AIDS Research (OAR)Ē Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

DIRECTOR'S OVERVIEW

The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) supports a broad range of research, training, and information dissemination activities related to arthritis, musculoskeletal, and skin diseases. Some are rare disorders, but many are very common, and all have a major influence on the quality of peopleís lives. Diseases addressed by NIAMS affect individuals of all ages, of all racial and ethnic backgrounds, and across all economic strata; many disproportionately affect women and minorities. Over the years, NIAMS-funded research teams have made significant progress in uncovering the causes of and developing new treatments for many disorders of the bones, muscles, joints, and skin.

The NIAMS constructed its FY 2011 budget to support the NIH Directorís five themes.

Recent Progress

Building on the success of FY 2008 and 2009 pilot initiatives to promote partnerships among fields that share interests, but historically do not interact, the NIAMS expanded its FY 2010 Building Interdisciplinary Research Teams (BIRT) initiative to researchers from all NIAMS areas. Integration of scientific groups holds the promise of opening avenues of inquiry and, in the process, may empower the biomedical research community to develop new disciplines and approaches with which to tackle increasingly complex questions.

To accelerate translation of basic research in musculoskeletal and skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine into treatments, the NIAMS is encouraging small businesses to propose pre-clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine studies that could lead immediately to phase I human clinical trials. As part of this FY 2010 effort, the NIAMS plans to support the development of pre-clinical animal models to assess safety and efficacy of potential commercial products in musculoskeletal and skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

The NIAMS also is encouraging investigators to design experiments related to the NIAMS mission that use existing resources developed through the Nationís considerable investment in large clinical trials. Specifically, the Institute is offering an accelerated process by which investigators can propose innovative, ground breaking projects that need to begin quickly if they are to make full use of the unique resources that an already approved study is establishing.

One element of improving the Nationís health is to support clinical studies on which physicians can rely when discussing treatment options with patients. Before the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT), many who had low back pain were conflicted about surgery. Thus far, SPORT has shown that surgery is superior to nonoperative treatments for intervertebral disk herniation (a common cause of debilitating low back pain in working-age adults) and lumbar spinal stenosis, which often afflicts older Americans. Moreover, SPORTís results are reassuring to those patients who are reluctant to undergo an operation, as they show that people who have one of these conditions are not subjecting themselves to further damage if they adopt a "wait-and-see" approach before committing to surgery.

The NIAMS intramural research program (IRP) has recently completed two genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A study on Behçetís disease—a complex disorder of inflammation affecting skin, joints, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and vasculature—found two new genetic locations that confer susceptibility to this condition in specific populations. Recognition of one of these locations suggests a new therapy for it. The other GWAS, performed by a consortium of researchers from throughout the United States, focused on rheumatoid arthritis. These studies have led to the identification of several genetic locations that may provide new therapeutic targets.

Future Directions

NIAMS is actively encouraging its researchers to apply the unprecedented opportunities in genomics and other high-throughput technologies to explain fundamental biologic mechanisms in health and disease. In the NIAMS IRP, for example, sample collection is beginning for a GWAS of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA), a type of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children, is accompanied by fever, and can include rashes and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, heart, and lungs.

In FY 2009 and 2010, NIAMS solicited input about the process by which the Institute identifies new clinical research directions and gathers feedback on emerging needs and opportunities, existing gaps, and obstacles in clinical trials related to its mission. Plans for FY 2011 include implementing a strategy to ensure that its portfolio continues to address pressing questions that translate basic science discoveries into treatments, or could guide the decision making of health care providers and improve patient care.

The success of biomedical research depends on empowering the next generation of scientists by providing them with robust training experiences. To this end, the NIAMS has taken steps to address the structure and review criteria for the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Institutional Research Training Grants, or T32 grants, that it will award in FY 2011 and beyond.

Other plans for FY 2011 include the possibility of supporting awards under a trans-NIH solicitation that the NIAMS spearheaded in FY 2009, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This initiative encourages biomedical researchers to develop projects that could be conducted in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). When the ISS becomes fully operational in 2011, it will provide a unique setting where NIH-funded researchers can explore fundamental questions about human health issues, including how the body heals itself, fights infection, or develops diseases such as osteoporosis.

Overall Budget Policy: The 2011 request for NIAMS is $555.715 million or 3.1 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. Investigator-initiated research project grants and research conducted by new scientists continue to be the Instituteís highest priorities. In FY 2011, the NIAMS will strive to equalize success rates between new and experienced investigators submitting new R01 or equivalent applications. In FY 2011 NIAMS will continue its policy of not accepting unsolicited applications for new program project grants, and competing continuation applications for program project grants will only be considered for a second competing award for a total project period of up to 10 years. As in previous years, the NIAMS will reserve a portion of its budget to support high priority research or meritorious applications beyond the established payline. Areas of special emphasis include genome-wide association studies and translational research, particularly in the areas of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Funds are included in R&D contracts to support several trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Therapies for Rare and Neglected Diseases program (TRND), the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet), and support for a new synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as increased support for other HHS agencies through the program evaluation set-aside.

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases:

The goals of this program are to advance high-quality basic, translational, and clinical biomedical and biopsychosocial research to treat and prevent arthritis and rheumatic diseases. The program uses new insights in the fields of genetics, genomics, and biomarkers as important indicators of disease occurrence, disease progression, and response to treatment, which may also identify potential therapeutic targets. NIAMS pursues new opportunities that identify risk factors for these disorders, to enhance disease prediction, and advance prevention strategies. In FY 2009, the Institute organized a session at its annual scientific retreat to explore novel approaches in clinical trials that target immune dysfunction in rheumatic diseases. NIAMS will collaborate with the extramural community to broaden the discussion of immune system targets, as well as potential personalized medicine approaches through pharmacogenomics. NIAMS continues to support research on the causes of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis which could lead to therapeutic interventions that would inhibit the irreversible effects of these diseases.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $131.896 million, an increase of $3.860 million or 3.02 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level.

NIAMS plans for FY 2011 include continued support for the replication of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and fine-mapping of identified gene associations, which will inform further research in disease susceptibility and therapeutic development. The NIAMS will support testing and validation of tools to measure patient-reported outcomes—created by the NIH Roadmapís Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative—in the diverse populations represented by the NIAMS portfolio, including arthritis and rheumatic diseases. The Institute also will encourage interactions in the research community to address the effectiveness of rheumatoid arthritis treatments in relation to genetic differences across patient populations.

Genome-Wide Association Studies

FY 2010 Level: $8.920 million
FY 2011 Level: $9.200 million
Change: $0.280 million

Many health problems are influenced by genetic susceptibility. Over the last few years, genome-wide association approaches have become a widely used scientific tool, to find gene variants that may confer disease risk. This information also lends understanding to molecular mechanisms of disease that will guide improvements in diagnosis and therapies. NIAMS-funded researchers have recently uncovered clues about the genetic underpinnings of risks for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic scleroderma, and Behçetís disease. In FY 2009, an ongoing NIAMS initiative began support of genome-wide analyses of existing data sets, which has allowed efficient pursuit of risk genes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, osteoporosis, and sarcopenia (low muscle mass). An FY 2010 initiative is encouraging researchers to conduct further analyses of disease-associated gene regions to identify individual gene variations responsible for a disease or trait.

Some of the most promising areas of research that benefit from genome-wide association studies relate to autoimmunity, in which the bodyís protective mechanisms against pathogens attack its own cells and tissues. This is characteristic of several rheumatic disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and ankylosing spondylitis. Many rheumatic disease risk genes identified by NIAMS-supported researchers through genome-wide association studies are involved with immune function. In addition, particular genes confer greater risk in some racial and ethnic populations than others. These findings will provide essential information for pharmacogenomics research, which studies how an individual patientís genome influences drug responses. Hence, continued research in this field will contribute to the development of personalized medicine approaches.

Musculoskeletal Biology and Diseases:

The program focuses on both understanding the fundamental biology of tissues that constitute the musculoskeletal system, and applying this knowledge to a variety of diseases and conditions including osteoarthritis. It studies the causes and treatment of acute and chronic injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, repetitive stress injury, and low back pain. The program supports the development of new technologies, including methods of imaging bone and cartilage to improve the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal disorders, and to facilitate repair of damage caused by trauma to otherwise healthy musculoskeletal tissue. In FY 2009, NIAMS and other NIH components extended the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) through FY 2014. Continuation of this public-private partnership allows investigators to supplement the data, which they collected annually from approximately 4,800 people over four years, with an additional four years worth of information. The entire research community has access to the OAI data for exploring the natural progression of osteoarthritis and gathering information on its risk factors.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $121.718 million, an increase of $3.563 million or 3.02 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. Program plans for FY 2011 include collaborating with professional organizations to examine clinical research needs related to acute and chronic neck and back disorders. Other efforts include exploring a framework for subsequent studies of people who are at risk of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis. The NIAMS also will continue to promote the use of the Osteoarthritis Initiative data and images by fostering collaborations between the broader scientific community and Osteoarthritis Initiative researchers.

Building Interdisciplinary Research Teams (BIRT)

FY 2010 Level: $2.000 million
FY 2011 Level: $2.000 million
Change: ---

The scale and complexity of today's research questions, and their answers, demand that the NIH explore new models for collaborative science. In FY 2008, the NIAMS started a program—Building Interdisciplinary Research Teams (BIRT)—to promote partnerships among fields that share interests, but historically do not interact. Under BIRT, the Institute encourages its investigators to form collaborations that will move their research in new directions and allow them to make advances beyond the progress that would come from their individual laboratories. The NIAMS limited the first two rounds of one-year awards (FY 2008 and FY 2009) to teams that bridged specific research topics (such as autoimmunity and systems biology; imaging technologies and soft tissue biology; immunology and regenerative medicine; and tissue engineering and developmental biology).

In FY 2010, the NIAMS expanded BIRT to basic or translational team-science across all of its mission areas. To be eligible under the broader program, a project must propose a partnership among investigators who do not have a history of collaboration. Their primary training, research, and experience must be in different disciplines. For example, an experimental biologist might collaborate with a mathematician, physicist, or engineer.

As the funding for the first award periods expires, the NIAMS will evaluate BIRTís effectiveness. Expectations for the program include development of collaborative research projects; pursuit of new research directions by BIRT recipients; creation of resources and facilities shared among scientific communities; and establishment of interdisciplinary meetings or workshops for the exchange of ideas, dissemination of information, and formation of additional research teams.

Bone Biology and Diseases:

The program covers a broad spectrum of research designed to better understand genetic and cellular mechanisms involved in the build-up and break-down of bone. It addresses regulation of bone remodeling; bone formation, bone resorption, and mineralization; and effects of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines on bone cells. Through the program, NIAMS supports prospective cohort studies including the Framingham Osteoporosis Study, the osteoporosis component of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, and Mr. OS, an investigation into osteoporosis and other age-related diseases in men. These longstanding efforts (begun in 1986 and 2000, respectively) continue to provide data about osteoporosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Mr. OS investigators, for example, published information in FY 2009 that is relevant to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Forceís efforts to provide guidance on using bone mineral density to assess fracture risk in men.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $72.585 million, an increase of $2.125 million or 3.02 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. Program plans for FY 2011 include continued support of several epidemiologic studies of fracture risk in women and men, as noted above. The NIAMS plans to build upon the findings of these and other large population study samples by encouraging researchers to connect information regarding the genetic makeup of study participants and their risks of fracture through genome-wide association studies of bone mass and fracture risk. It also will partner with the National Institute on Aging to promote research on how bone health influences, and is affected by, other conditions including diabetes, obesity, anorexia nervosa, and depression.

Muscle Biology and Diseases:

The program supports a wide range of basic, translational, and clinical research projects in skeletal muscle biology and diseases. It focuses on fundamental biology of muscle development, physiology, and muscle imaging. Its overarching objective is to advance the understanding of, and, ultimately, to prevent and treat muscular dystrophies, inflammatory myopathies, muscle ion channel diseases, and muscle disorders, such as disuse atrophy and age-related loss of muscle mass. Program activities in FY 2010 will include funding a new Senator Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center. NIAMS also will maintain a pipeline of basic and pre-clinical discoveries that researchers can develop into treatments, and will continue to collaborate with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke on efforts to encourage investigator-initiated proposals for translational research on muscular dystrophies.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $76.390 million, an increase of $2.236 million or 3.02 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. For FY 2011, the program will continue to participate in the Senator Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Research Center program. It also will continue to support training and career development in muscular dystrophies including, but not limited to, Duchenne, myotonic, facioscapulohumeral, and congenital disease. Other FY 2011 activities will continue to promote research on the mechanisms of muscular dystrophies, characterization of disease phenotypes, management of disease complications, and development of new therapies. The NIAMS also is fostering preclinical development and testing of potential treatments against the muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. It remains committed to supporting research on non-dystrophic skeletal muscle diseases such as channelopathies and inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies, and on muscle wasting resulting from disuse or systemic diseases.

Skin Biology and Diseases:

This program supports a broad portfolio of basic, translational, and clinical research in skin, including work on the developmental and molecular biology of skin; the study of skin as an immune organ; and the genetics of skin diseases. The Institute is pursuing opportunities in developing artificial skin, and imaging technologies for diagnosing and tracking progression of skin diseases. In FY 2009, a NIAMS-facilitated consortium of leading researchers in psoriasis genetics discovered genes for disease risk, which may provide insights into novel therapeutic approaches. The Institute also organized a session on stem cells at its annual scientific retreat, to explore opportunities to use easily-accessible skin cells as a source of pluripotent stem cells. These cells, which have the potential to become any type of cell in the body, could guide studies in disease pathogenesis, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapies for a wide range of disorders. NIAMS continues to support several projects that study connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome—a heritable disease characterized by highly flexible skin, and severe skeletal and cardiovascular complications—and pediatric hemangiomas, which are benign, blood vessel tumors in the skin that can occasionally result in permanent, significant abnormalities when facial structures are involved.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $69.351 million, an increase of $2.030 million or 3.02 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. NIAMS plans for FY 2011 include continued support for studies on the interactions between the skin and other parts of the body (such as the immune system, the cardiovascular system and the nervous system) under normal, healthy conditions, as well as a consequence of certain illnesses (e.g., eczema, psoriasis). In addition, the Institute will enhance the transfer of laboratory findings related to skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to the clinic, by funding research with animal models that mimic human biology.

Intramural Research Program:

The two-fold mission of this program is to conduct innovative basic, translational, and clinical research relevant to the health concerns of the Institute; and, to provide training for investigators who are interested in related research careers. The program conducts clinical studies on the genetics, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of a variety of rheumatic, autoimmune, inflammatory, joint, skin, and muscle diseases. Over the past year, the program has added clinical staff with expertise in orthopaedic surgery, an area that remains a high priority for the Institute. In addition, NIAMS continues to play a leadership role in the new, multidisciplinary, trans-NIH Center for Human Immunology, Autoimmunity, and Inflammation (CHI), which is bringing together scientists from several NIH institutes who are using common approaches to study multiple disease systems. In FY 2009, the CHI hosted a conference entitled, —Meeting the Human Immunology Challenge,— in which many NIAMS intramural researchers participated.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $56.702 million, an increase of $1.758 million or 3.20 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. NIAMS plans for FY 2011 include a continued focus on translational research, in order to facilitate patient-oriented studies in the areas of arthritis, musculoskeletal, and skin diseases, including their genetic, inflammatory, and immune mechanisms. NIAMS will also continue its commitment to multidisciplinary training of rheumatology research fellows, including interactions with other NIH intramural training programs with common scientific interests, to strengthen the pipeline of highly qualified physician-scientists in this field. The Institute's intramural research program also anticipates building upon its recent ground-breaking, collaborative studies, to uncover more information on the genetic underpinnings of those diseases of interest to NIAMS. Utilizing new technologies that are able to read millions of DNA base pairs in just a few hours, intramural scientists will investigate how the genome is regulated, particularly as it relates to the maturation and differentiation of cells found in the skin and immune system.

NIAMS Intramural Research Program

FY 2010 Level: $54.944 million
FY 2011 Level: $56.702 million
Change: $1.758 million

The NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) continues to support a wide range of activities that span basic, translational, and clinical research, as well as provide training opportunities. For example, using a new genome sequencing technology, NIAMS IRP scientists have recently discovered clues about one type of immune system cell called T lymphocytes—this type of information can be used to develop new treatments for diseases, particularly autoimmune and infectious diseases.

In another effort, NIAMS scientists have discovered a new autoinflammatory syndrome. The researchers have termed the disorder DIRA (deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist). Most of the children with DIRA begin to display a constellation of serious and potentially fatal symptoms from birth to 2 weeks of age. Once identified, the scientists successfully treated patients with anakinra, a drug used for rheumatoid arthritis. Future work will build off of this discovery and should lead to early recognition of DIRA and initiation of life-saving treatment. Genetic screening for this disease in the respective populations may also be justified. Finally, although DIRA is rare, its continued study should shed light on the inflammatory mechanisms in more common diseases that have similar pathologies and pose significant health care challenges.

The NIAMS Cardozo Community Health Center (CHC) in Washington, D.C., not only provides local residents access to specialty-care and science-based health information, but it also enhances the Instituteís efforts to train the next generation of health professionals. The CHC enables clinical fellows to train within a unique community-based learning environment in rheumatic diseases. The CHC recently welcomed three new trainees who will complete clinical rotations in consultative practice, pediatric rheumatology, and community-based rheumatology over the coming months.

RMS:

NIAMS' RMS funds the scientific, administrative management, and information technology expenses associated with day-to-day operations. It finances long-term investments in the research enterprise, including the review and financial management of applications for grants and contracts, and dissemination of research results to the American public. In FY 2009, the Institute managed more than 1,254 research grants and centers, as well as 55 research and development contracts and 321 individual and institutional full-time research training positions. NIAMS supports 528 clinical research studies, including 72 clinical trials. In FY 2010, NIAMS will release a new Long-Range Plan for FY 2010-2014. The plan will serve as a broad scientific outline for NIAMS by identifying compelling research opportunities and needs that will inform NIAMSí priority-setting process, while enabling the Institute to adapt to the rapidly changing biomedical and behavioral science landscapes. Over time, it will help propel research progress related to NIAMS mission areas.

Budget Policy: The FY 2011 budget estimate for this program is $27.073 million, an increase of $1.289 million or 5.00 percent over the FY 2010 Enacted level. In FY 2011, the NIAMS will continue to implement its new Multicultural Outreach Initiative which has been designed to improve access to and availability of meaningful health information for racial and ethnic minority populations. Additional goals include raising awareness of the importance of research as the foundation for progress in achieving better bone, joint, muscle, and skin health, and enhancing involvement of community, voluntary, and professional organizations, and other governmental agencies in multicultural outreach efforts. The Institute also will continue to sponsor roundtable discussions and a scientific retreat with extramural investigators and lay representatives to inform the research priority-setting and strategic planning process.

Recovery Act Implementation

Recovery Act Funding: $132.7 million

In FY 2009, NIAMS received $132.7 million under the Recovery Act. Of this amount, $75.1 million was obligated in FY 2009 and $57.6 million will be obligated in FY 2010. Through ARRA, researchers are expanding their studies, developing new collaborations, and hiring faculty. Some funds are supporting hands-on laboratory experiences for teachers and students in local communities, thereby generating enthusiasm for research in young people who may become the next generation of scientists. Other efforts will create resources for investigators to mine long after the two-year projects are complete. For example, NIAMS awarded major grants for research infrastructure that will foster studies of rheumatic arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Another award brings together clinicians who will generate evidence that will guide treatment strategies for people who have psoriasis. One research team is creating a tool that investigators can use to more accurately study the stresses that lead to herniated discs and back pain, while elsewhere, a group is establishing a collection of mouse models that researchers can use to identify genes that contribute to cartilage healing after an injury. NIAMS also dedicated some money to leverage earlier investments in large population-based studies. As ARRA-funded scientists collect information about the genetic makeup of study volunteers, they are making the data available for the entire research community to use in genome-wide association studies to uncover the genetic underpinnings of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases and lead to new treatments and cures.


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Budget Authority by Object

Budget Authority by Object
 
FY 2010
Enacted

FY 2011
PB

Increase or
Decrease
Total compensable workyears:
Full-time employment 231 241 10
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday
hours
0 0 0
Average ES salary $181,283 $183,821 $2,538
Average GM/GS grade 11.7 11.7 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $91,316 $92,602 $1,286
Average salary, grade established by
act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207)
$69,013 $69,979 $966
Average salary of ungraded positions 121,390 123,044 1,654

OBJECT CLASSES
FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 Estimate Increase or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $14,079,000 $14,965,000 $886,000
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 8,661,000 9,139,000 478,000
11.5 Other personnel compensation 777,000 826,000 49,000
11.7 Military personnel 285,000 304,000 19,000
11.8 Special personnel services payments 2,754,000 2,899,000 145,000
             Total, Personnel Compensation 26,556,000 28,133,000 1,577,000
12.0 Personnel benefits 6,488,000 6,875,000 387,000
12.2 Military personnel benefits 277,000 296,000 19,000
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0
             Subtotal, Pay Costs 33,321,000 35,304,000 1,983,000
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 836,000 852,000 16,000
22.0 Transportation of things 183,000 186,000 3,000
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0
23.2 Rental payments to others 0 0 0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 529,000 539,000 10,000
24.0 Printing and reproduction 131,000 135,000 4,000
25.1 Consulting services 1,335,000 1,372,000 37,000
25.2 Other services 4,617,000 4,703,000 86,000
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 46,425,000 49,137,000 2,712,000
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 288,000 292,000 4,000
25.5 Research and development contracts 14,706,000 15,707,000 1,001,000
25.6 Medical care 448,000 455,000 7,000
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 1,687,000 1,713,000 26,000
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 69,506,000 73,379,000 3,873,000
26.0 Supplies and materials 4,962,000 5,039,000 77,000
31.0 Equipment 2,288,000 2,324,000 36,000
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 427,098,000 437,957,000 10,859,000
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0
43.0 Interest and dividends 0 0 0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0
             Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 505,533,000 520,411,000 14,878,000
             Total Budget Authority by Object 538,854,000 555,715,000 16,861,000

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research


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Salaries and Expenses

Salaries and Expenses
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010
Enacted
FY 2011
PB
Increase or
Decrease
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $14,079,000 $14,965,000 $886,000
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 8,661,000 9,139,000 478,000
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 777,000 826,000 49,000
Military personnel (11.7) 285,000 304,000 19,000
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 2,754,000 2,899,000 145,000
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 26,556,000 28,133,000 1,577,000
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 6,488,000 6,875,000 387,000
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 277,000 296,000 19,000
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 33,321,000 35,304,000 1,983,000
Travel (21.0) 836,000 852,000 16,000
Transportation of things (22.0) 183,000 186,000 3,000
Rental payments to others (23.2) 0 0 0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 529,000 539,000 10,000
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 131,000 135,000 4,000
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 1,335,000 1,372,000 37,000
Other services (25.2) 4,617,000 4,703,000 86,000
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 32,999,000 34,100,000 1,101,000
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 288,000 292,000 4,000
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 1,687,000 1,713,000 26,000
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 40,926,000 42,180,000 1,254,000
Supplies and materials (26.0) 4,961,000 5,038,000 77,000
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 47,566,000 48,930,000 1,364,000
Total, Administrative Costs 80,887,000 84,234,000 3,347,000


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Authorizing Legislation

Authorizing Legislation
  PHS Act/
Other Citation
U.S. Code
Citation
2010 Amount
Authorized
FY 2010
Estimate
2011 Amount
Authorized
FY 2011
PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite $538,854,000 Indefinite $555,715,000
National Institute of
Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Section 402(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority       538,854,000   555,715,000


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Appropriations History

Appropriations History
Fiscal
Year
Budget Estimate
to Congress
House
Allowance
Senate
Allowance
Appropriation  
2002             443,565,000 440,144,000 460,202,000 448,865,000
Rescission (617,000)
2003 485,851,000 485,851,000 489,324,000 489,324,000
Rescission (3,181,000)
2004 502,778,000 502,778,000 505,000,000 504,300,000
Rescission (3,234,000)
2005 515,378,000 515,378,000 520,900,000 515,378,000
Rescission (4,221,000)
2006 513,063,000 513,063,000 525,758,000 513,063,000
Rescission (5,131,000)
2007 504,533,000 504,533,000 508,585,000 508,240,000
Rescission 0
2008 508,082,000 516,044,000 519,810,000 508,586,000
Rescission (9,043,000)
Supplemental
2009 509,080,000 526,583,000 523,246,000 524,872,000
Rescission 0
2010 530,825,000 543,621,000 533,831,000 539,082,000
Rescission 0
2011 555,715,000      

1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.
2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.


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Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2009
Actual
FY 2010
Enacted
FY 2011
PB
Office of the Director 54 52 54
Extramural Program 42 41 44
Intramural Research Program 142 138 143

Total
238 231 241
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (0) (0) (0)

FISCAL YEAR

Average GM/GS Grade
2007 11.6
2008 11.6
2009 11.7
2010 11.7
2011 11.7


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Detail of Positions

Detail of Positions
GRADE
FY 2009
Actual

FY 2010
Enacted

FY 2011
PB
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary 177,000 181,283 183,821
GM/GS-15 16 16 16
GM/GS-14 25 25 27
GM/GS-13 35 33 33
GS-12 35 32 34
GS-11 22 20 21
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 8 8 10
GS-8 7 7 7
GS-7 11 11 11
GS-6 3 3 3
GS-5 2 2 2
GS-4 2 2 2
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 1 1 1
GS-1 0 0 0
 Subtotal 167 160 167
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):      
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 1 1 1
Senior Grade 0 0 0
Full Grade 3 3 3
Senior Assistant Grade 1 1 1
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
 Subtotal 5 5 5
Ungraded 88 88 91
Total permanent positions 171 164 174
Total positions, end of year 261 254 264
Total full-time equivalent (FTE)
employment, end of year
238 231 241
Average ES salary 177,000 181,283 183,821
Average GM/GS grade 11.7 11.7 11.7
Average GM/GS salary 88,893 91,316 92,602

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.


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New Positions Requested

New Positions Requested
  FY 2011
  Grade Number Annual
Salary
Management Analyst GS-9 1 $61,000
Health Science Administrator GS-14 1 124,000
Ethics Coordinator GS-14 1 124,000
Adult Rheumatologist AD 1 230,000
Clinical Fellow AD 2 66,500
Program Analyst GS-12 1 84,500
Grants Management Specialist GS-9 1 61,000
Research Nurse GS-12 1 84,500
Biologist GS-11 1 71,500
Total Requested
10